INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the root morphology and root canal configuration of the lower and upper premolars using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), according to gender and right-left position of the tooth in the Turkish subpopulation.
METHODS: 494 patients were used for the evaluation of root canal anatomy of mandibular and maxillary premolar teeth. In total, 3,880 premolar teeth were evaluated. CBCT images were examined in the coronal, sagittal, and axial planes.Number of roots, canals, and canal configurations of the teeth were determined according to Vertucci's classification. Qualitative data were analyzed with Chi-square, Fisher Exact, and Bonferroni tests (α=0.05%).
RESULTS: In maxillary first premolars, 64.5% two roots, 87.7% two canals, and 67.8% Type Ⅳ canal configuration; in maxillary second premolars 77.3% one root, 50.4% one canal, and 50.4 Type Ⅰ canal configuration; in mandibular first premolars 89.9% one root, 76.9% one canal, and 76.9% Type Ⅰ canal configuration; and in mandibular second premolars 98.4% one root, 95.9% one canal, and 95.9% Type Ⅰ canal configuration were observed.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: No statistically significant effect of the tooth position on the number of roots, canals, and canal configuration in maxillary and mandibular premolars was observed (p>0.05). Maxillary second premolar and mandibular first premolars showed a statistically significant effect on number of roots, number of root canals, and root canal configuration by gender (p=0.00, p=0.032). In addition, gender had a significant effect on number of roots in maxillary first premolars (p=0.017).