INTRODUCTION: Researchers have recently increased their focus on the link between autoimmune diseases and infections. Most of the recent research indicates that silent HCMV, may have diverse roles in the initiation, development, and exacerbation of autoimmune diseases, such as CD and inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of HCMV infection in Iraqi patients with CD.
METHODS: Serum samples were obtained from 60 patients with CD, and from 60 healthy subjects (the control group). The ELISA technique (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) was used to determine the Anti-Transglutaminase screen, Anti-Gliadin IgA (secretory immunoglobulin), and Anti-Gliadin IgG (immunoglobulin G), as well as the HCMV IgM (immunoglobulin M) and IgG levels in the serum samples.
RESULTS: Highly significantly increased mean levels of serum Anti- transglutaminase,serum Anti-Gliadin A and serum Anti-Gliadin G(P = 0.00, P < 0.01) in active CD patients from the healthy controls. A non-significant difference (P > 0.05) of serum Anti-HCMV IgM, with negative predominant, both in CD patients and in the control group (Positive 2 (3.3%), Negative 58 (96.7%)), with (P = 1.00, P > 0.05). Parallel results of serum Anti-HCMV IgG, with positive predominant, both in CD patients (Positive 46, (76.7%), Negative 14 (23.3%)) and in the control group (Positive 47 (78.3%), Negative 13 (21.7%)), with (P = 0.827, P > 0.05).
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Detection of Anti-Gliadin A/G, by a rapid non-invasive test, is helpful for an easy diagnosis of CD, and for screening family members. Infection with HCMV does not trigger the development of CD.